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Contours are Continuous

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Some contour lines may close within the map, but others will not. 
In this case, they will start at a boundary line and end at a boundary line.
Contours must either close or extend from boundary to boundary

  Continuous Contours-cont.

Is the topo map correct?

Contour 1040 is very unlikely
This would only occur if there were a long vertical wall.
 Contour lines are parallel
Two exceptions:
1.They will meet at a vertical cliff
2.They will overlap at a cave or overhang. 
3.  When contour lines overlap, the lower elevation contour should be dashed for the duration of the overlap.

 3. Valleys and higher elevation
A series of V-shapes indicates a valley and the V’s point to higher elevation
U shapes and ridge

A series of U shapes indicates a ridge.  The U shapes will point to lower elevation

  Contour Spacing 

Evenly spaced contours indicate an area of uniform slope.

Unevenly spaced contours indicates an area with variable slope.

  Hills and Depressions  

A series of closed contours with increasing elevation indicates a hill.

Hills may be identified with a “+” with the elevations

  Hills and Depressions--cont.

vA series of closed contours with decreasing elevation indicates a depression.
vDepressions may be identified with a “-”.


vHachures are short lines which are perpendicular to the contour line.
vUsed to indicate a hill or a depression.
vNot used on modern maps.



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