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Some contour lines may close within the map, but others will not. 
In this case, they will start at a boundary line and end at a boundary line.
Contours must either close or extend from boundary to boundary



  Continuous Contours-cont.

Is the topo map correct?

No 
Contour 1040 is very unlikely
This would only occur if there were a long vertical wall.
 
 Contour lines are parallel
 
Two exceptions:
1.They will meet at a vertical cliff
2.They will overlap at a cave or overhang. 
3.  When contour lines overlap, the lower elevation contour should be dashed for the duration of the overlap.

 
 3. Valleys and higher elevation
A series of V-shapes indicates a valley and the V’s point to higher elevation
  
U shapes and ridge

A series of U shapes indicates a ridge.  The U shapes will point to lower elevation




  Contour Spacing 


Evenly spaced contours indicate an area of uniform slope.


Unevenly spaced contours indicates an area with variable slope.

  Hills and Depressions  


A series of closed contours with increasing elevation indicates a hill.


Hills may be identified with a “+” with the elevations


  Hills and Depressions--cont.


vA series of closed contours with decreasing elevation indicates a depression.
vDepressions may be identified with a “-”.

  Hachures   

 
vHachures are short lines which are perpendicular to the contour line.
vUsed to indicate a hill or a depression.
vNot used on modern maps.










 

Contours are Continuous



Some contour lines may close within the map, but others will not. 
In this case, they will start at a boundary line and end at a boundary line.
Contours must either close or extend from boundary to boundary



  Continuous Contours-cont.

Is the topo map correct?

No 
Contour 1040 is very unlikely
This would only occur if there were a long vertical wall.
 
 Contour lines are parallel
 
Two exceptions:
1.They will meet at a vertical cliff
2.They will overlap at a cave or overhang. 
3.  When contour lines overlap, the lower elevation contour should be dashed for the duration of the overlap.

 
 3. Valleys and higher elevation
A series of V-shapes indicates a valley and the V’s point to higher elevation
  
U shapes and ridge

A series of U shapes indicates a ridge.  The U shapes will point to lower elevation




  Contour Spacing 


Evenly spaced contours indicate an area of uniform slope.


Unevenly spaced contours indicates an area with variable slope.

  Hills and Depressions  


A series of closed contours with increasing elevation indicates a hill.


Hills may be identified with a “+” with the elevations


  Hills and Depressions--cont.


vA series of closed contours with decreasing elevation indicates a depression.
vDepressions may be identified with a “-”.

  Hachures   

 
vHachures are short lines which are perpendicular to the contour line.
vUsed to indicate a hill or a depression.
vNot used on modern maps.