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 surveying may be defined as the science of determining

 the position in three dimensions of natural and man 

made features on or beneath the surface of the earth . 

these features may be represented in analogue from as 

acontoured map , plan or chart , or in digital from such as adigital ground model (DGM).

in engineering surveying , either ,or both of the above 

formats may be used  for planning . design and 

costruction of works . both on the surface and 

underground.At alater stage, survying teachinques are 

used for dimensional control or setting out of designed 

constructional element and also for monitoring deformation movements .

 in the first instance surveying requires mangement and 

decision making in deciding the appropriate methods 

and instrumentation required to complete the task 

satisfacorily to the specified accuracy and within reconnaissance of the area to be surveyed

 when the above logistics are complete , the field work 

involving the capture and storage of field data - is 

carried out using instruments and techniques appropiate to the task in hand .

 processing the data is the next step in the operation . 

the majority , if not all , of the computation will be 

carried out with computing aids ranging from poket 

caculator to personal computer . the methods adopted 

will depend upon the size and precision of the survey 

and the manner of its recording : whether in field book 

or data logger . data representation in analogue or 

digital from may now be carried out by convention 

cartographic plotting or through a totally automated 

computer - based system leading to a paper - or screen - 

based plot . in engineering , the plan or DGM is used 

planning and designing a construction project . the 

project may be a railway , highway , dam , bridge , or even anew town complex > 

no matter what the work is .or how compliated , it must 

be set out on the ground in its correct place and to its 

correct dimensions , within the tolerances specified . to 

this end , surveying procedures and instrumentation of 

varying precision and complexity are used depending the project in hand . 

surveying is indispensable to the engineer when 

planning , designing and constructiog a project , so

 surveying is indispensable to the engineer when 

planning , designing and constructing a project , so all

 engineers should have athorough understanding of the 

limits of accuracy possible in the construction and 

manufacuring processes . this knowledge , combined 

with  an equal understanding of the limits and 

capabilities of surveying instrumentation and 

tachniques , will wnable the engineer to complete the 

project successfully in the most ecocomical manner and in the shortest possible time.